The beverage industry and the retailers typically suffer the most net costs.
However, there is a natural way to sustain the starting up of a DRS.
When a DRS starts, the typical recycling rate of drinks containers is <50%.
In the first three years of a DRS, the recycling rate is expected to grow, optimistically to 70%, then 80%, then 90%.
Bottles which are not returned, so they are recycled via home collection or not recycled, are therefore 30%, 20%, 10% in the first three years.
The deposits paid on those bottles will not be redeemed (the cash won't go back onto the consumers' hands) so the cash will remain in the Scheme Administrator funds.
This extra cash, however bad it is that some containers' weren't potentially recycled, are used to cover the costs of activating a DRS. This will ultimately be good for the planet.